Jinzhou (/ˈdʒɪnˈdʒoʊ/, simplified Chinese: 锦州; traditional Chinese: 錦州; pinyin: Jǐnzhōu) is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the "Liaoxi Corridor" (辽西走廊), which connects land transportation between North China and Northeast China. Jinzhou is China's northernmost seaport and the coastal economic center of West Liaoning on the north-western shore of the Bohai Sea. The total area under the jurisdiction of Jinzhou is 10,111 square kilometres (3,904 sq mi), most of which is rural, encompassing a coastline of 97.7 km (60.7 mi).
It is one of the biggest cities in Liaoning with a population of 3,126,463 at the 2010 census, of whom 1,091,799 reside in the built-up area made of 3 urban districts.
Jinzhou is an ancient city with over a thousand years of history. Originally known as Tuhe (徒河), it was part of Yan in the Warring States period. Under the Qin dynasty, the majority of what is now Jinzhou became part of Liaodong township. It was part of Changli township in Youzhou during the Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms periods, but fell under the jurisdiction of Yingzhou in the Beiwei, Dongwei, and Beiqi periods, before becoming part of Liucheng township and then Yan township during the Sui Dynasty and Tang dynasty. During the Tang, it was the seat of the Andong township.
The name "Jinzhou" came into use in the Liao dynasty, when it belonged to Zhongjing prefecture. In the Jin dynasty, it was part of Dongjing Township and Beijing township. It belonged to Liaoyang Xingzhongshu in the Yuan dynasty and to Liaodong township in the Ming dynasty. It was ruled by Tianfu during the Qing dynasty, when its name was changed from Jinzhou to Jinxian. It was previously known in English as Chinhsien and Chinchow.
People's Liberation Army launches final strike on Jinzhou
During the Republican period, Jinzhou was attached to Liaoning Province. When the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1945, Jinzhou was the site of a major battle between the Communist and Nationalist forces, since it is where the main route from Manchuria through Shanhai Pass enters central China. Its capture on November 22, 1945 by Nationalist forces under Du Yuming forced the Communists to agree to a temporary ceasefire that lasted several months.
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoxi Province was founded and Jinzhou became its provincial capital. Jinzhou came back under the administration of Liaoning Province in 1954, when Liaoxi and Liaodong provinces re-merged.
Jinzhou is located in the southwestern portion of Liaoning, and borders Panjin, Anshan, and Shenyang to the east, and Huludao on the west. The city's southern coast is the Liaodong Bay. On the north are Chaoyang and Fuxin.
Jinzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with four distinct seasons; winters are cold but very dry while summers are hot and humid. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −7.9 °C (17.8 °F) to 24.3 °C (75.7 °F) in July, with the annual mean being 9.50 °C (49.1 °F). The annual average precipitation is between 540 and 640 millimetres (21 and 25 in), a majority of which usually occurs in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 45% in July to 68% in three months, the city receives 2,682 hours of bright sunshine annually, with autumn and winter being especially sunny.
Fossil-bearing rocks are exposed in the city's vicinity, including the Yixian Formation. A genus of Early Cretaceous birds has been named Jinzhouornis in honor of the locality, but it appears to be a junior synonym of Confuciusornis which was found in the same formation some years earlier.