Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China. It is the southernmost city of Northeast China, at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. Dalian is the province's second largest city and has sub-provincial administrative status; only the provincial capital (Shenyang) is larger. The Shandong Peninsula lies southwest across the Bohai Strait; Korea lies across the Yellow Sea to the east.
Today, a financial, shipping and logistics centre for Northeast Asia, Dalian has a significant history of being used by foreign powers for its ports. Dalian was previously known as both Dalniy (Russian: Дальний; Dal'nii) and Dairen (Japanese: 大連). However, the city was better known as Port Arthur (Russian: Порт-Артур; Port-Artur) and Ryojun (Japanese: 旅順) from the original Port Arthur, now the city's Lüshunkou district.
In 2016, Dalian ranks 48th in the Global Financial Centres Index published by the Z/Yen Group and Qatar Financial Centre Authority, the other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Beijing and Qingdao. In 2012, Dalian ranked 82nd in the Global City Competitiveness Index, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (The Economist Group). In 2006, Dalian was named China's most livable city by China Daily.
The city was upgraded from a prefecture-level city to a sub-provincial city in May 1994, with no change in its administrative subdivisions. In the 1990s the city benefited from the attention of Bo Xilai (later Communist Party head of Chongqing) who was both the mayor of the city and one of the major leaders in the province, who, among other things, banned motorcycles and planted large, lush parks in the city's many traffic circles. He also preserved much of Dalian's Japanese and Russian architectural heritage. He also worked as former Minister of Commerce of the PRC.
In 2008, about 1,000 people protested and blocked traffic as a response of the 2008 Tibetan anti-Chinese protests, and forced the temporary closure of the local Carrefour store.
In 2010, one of the worst recorded oil spills in China's history occurred in Dalian.
Since 2007, Dalian has been hosting the Annual Meeting of the New Champions ("Summer Davos"), organised by the World Economic Forum, in alternating years with Tianjin. The venue for the forum is Dalian International Conference Center in Donggang CBD.
14 August 2011 - Dalian PX protest occurred.
June 2014 - China's tenth national new area, Dalian Jinpu New Area officially established.
14 June 2016 - Dalian taxi incident occurred.
5 August 2016 - Dalian Huabiao incident occurred.
One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, Dalian municipal area today consists of Dalian proper and the smaller Lüshunkou (formerly Lüshun city, known in Western and Russian historic references as Port Arthur), about forty nautical miles (74 kilometres; 46 miles) farther along the Liaodong Peninsula. Historical references note that the Russian designed city of Dalniy (Alt. Dalney), on the south side of Dalian Bay was 40 kilometres (25 miles) from Port Arthur/Lüshun (known today as Lüshunkou or literally, Lüshun Port).
Dalian is located on Korea Bay north of the Yellow Sea and roughly in the middle of the Liaodong peninsula at its narrowest neck or isthmus. With a coastline of 1,906 km (1,184 mi), it governs the majority of the Liaodong Peninsula and about 260 surrounding islands and reefs. It is seated at south-south-west of the Yalu River, and its harbour entrance forms a sub-bay known as Dalian Bay.
Dalian has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), characterised by warm wet summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Except for winter, the city experiences a one-month seasonal lag due to its position on the Liaodong Peninsula. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) in January to 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) in August. Annual precipitation averages 602 millimetres (23.7 in) but is heavily concentrated in the summer months and can vary greatly from year to year. Due to the coastal location, the mean diurnal temperature variation annually is small, at 6.75 °C (12.2 °F). The monthly percent of possible sunshine ranges from 49% in July to 68% in September and October, with 2,740 hours of bright sunshine annually. The annual mean temperature is 10.90 °C (51.6 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −21.1 °C (−6 °F) on 4 January 1970 to 36.6 °C (98 °F) on 14 July 2015.