Changzhi (simplified Chinese: 长治; traditional Chinese: 長治; Pinyin: Chángzhì) is a prefecture-level city in Shanxi Province, China. Historically, the city was one of the 36 administrative areas (see Administrative Divisions of Qin Dynasty) extant under the reign of the first emperor of a unified China (see Qin Shi Huang). Literally speaking, Changzhi means 'eternal peace' in Chinese.
Nowadays, Changzhi is a transportation centre in Shanxi. Transportations is facilitated by: four controlled-access highways, (Taiyuan-Changzhi, Changzhi-Jincheng, Changzhi-Linfen, and Changzhi-Handan); two railways, (Taiyuan–Jiaozuo Railway and Handan–Changzhi Railway ); three national highways, China National Highway 207, 208 and 309; and Changzhi Wangcun Airport (ITAT Code: CIH, ICAO Code: ZBCZ). Internal transportation also includes a bus and taxi network.
The city is a rising commercial and industrial centre in the southeastern area of Shanxi. In 2011, its GDP ranked 1st out of 11 prefecture-level cities in the province. According to the 6th National Population Census, in 2010 the city was home to 3,334,564 residents.
The local environment, especially the Air Quality Index, is monitored by China's Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and city government. A record of daily air quality is published by the local government.
In ancient times the area around Changzhi (Including Jincheng) was known as Shangdang. Changzhi was the site of the Shangdang Campaign, the first battle between the Kuomintang and the People's Liberation Army after the end of World War II. The campaign began in August 1945 and lasted until October. It began when the local Shanxi warlord, Yan Xishan, attempted to retake the region from Communist forces. Yan's forces were eventually defeated by an army led by Liu Bocheng, who was later named one of China's Ten Great Marshals. Liu's political commissar was Deng Xiaoping, who later became China's "paramount leader". The campaign ended with the complete destruction of Yan's army, most of which joined the Communists after surrendering. Following the Shangdang Campaign, the Communists remained in control of the region until they won the civil war in 1949.