Luzhou (simplified Chinese: 泸州; traditional Chinese: 瀘州; pinyin: Lúzhōu; Sichuanese Pinyin: Nu2zou1; Luzhou dialect: [nu˨˩tsəu˥]), formerly transliterated as Lu-chou or Luchow, is a prefecture-level city located in the southeast of Sichuan Province, China. The city, named Jiangyang until the Southern and Northern Dynasties, is known as the "wine city". Situated at the confluence of the Tuo River and the Yangtze River, Luzhou is not only an important port on the Yangtze river, but also the largest port in both size and output in Sichuan province since Chongqing seceded from Sichuan province in 1997. At the 2010 census its population was 4,218,427 inhabitants whom 919,832 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Jiangyang and Longmatan districts, as Naxi district isn't conurbated yet. Luzhou, which borders Yunnan, Guizhou and Chongqing, is the only geographic junction of the four provinces, and was therefore the logical place for a port in ancient China. After the PRC was founded in 1949, Luzhou became the capital of southern Sichuan province. In 1983, Luzhou was approved as a prefecture-level city administratively.
Luzhou is best known for its alcoholic beverages.
Luzhou was incorporated into the Ba state early in the Shang and Zhou period, in the 11th century BC. In 316 BC, during the Warring States period, King Huiwen of Qin established Ba prefecture, which included most of Luzhou, after he conquered the states of Ba and Shu. The local economy and culture expanded as a result of the advanced production technique and culture introduced by immigrants from the rest of China. During the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 23), Jiangyang county was set up in what is the current Jiangyang district, at the confluence of the Tuo River and Yangtze River. The county was further expanded during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. As a result, Luzhou became the portal of the Tuojing River leading to western Sichuan, which brought great prosperity to salt-refinery and agriculture in the area.
The Song Dynasty was an important period in Luzhou’s history. It was known as the natural granary of southern Sichuan as the wine-making and salt-refining industries expanded. The method to decoct salt with natural gas was discovered at that time, according to ancient literature. In addition, trade and business between Luzhou residents and ethnic groups was brisk and a protective wall as well as forts were constructed by the local government.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Luzhou remained an important place for the wine-making, salt-refinery and tea-making industry and trade. A large number of wooden ships were made to further the shipping industry. During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911), waves of immigrants from other parts of China brought rapid growth in economy and culture. Luzhou served as a political, economic, military and cultural center for the provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan.
The People's Liberation Army took control of Luzhou on December 6, 1949 from the Kuomintang government, two months after the founding of the People's Republic of China. In 1960, Luzhou prefecture was created with five counties that had been part of Yibin prefecture. The prefecture was upgraded to the prefecture-level city of Luzhou in 1983. Nowadays, Luzhou is considered a center of the chemical, machinery, and wine-making industries.
Luzhou is situated in the southeast region of Sichuan province, at the intersection of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Chongqing, at longitude 105° 08' 41"E ~ 106° 28'E and latitude 27° 39' N ~ 29° 20'N. Covering an area of 12,246.87 square kilometres (4,728.54 sq mi), it is 121.64 kilometres (75.58 mi) wide from east to west and 181.84 kilometres (112.99 mi) long from south to north. A prefecture-level city of Sichuan with a registered population of 4.8 million, Luzhou is 267 km (166 mi) away from Chengdu, the provincial capital. It is adjacent to Chongqing in the east, borders Guizhou and Yunnan provinces in the south, Yibin City and Zizhong City in the west, Chongqing and Neijiang in the north. The city governs 7 administrative divisions, including 3 districts (Jiangyang, Longma, Naxi) and 4 counties (Lu, Hejiang, Xuyong, Gulin).
Owing to its position in the southern peripheral area of Sichuan Basin and the connective region with Yunnan and Guizhou plateau, Luzhou is characterised by the river valleys, hills, and level lands in the north and highland, mountains, sheer valleys and rushing rivers in the south. Fishing and agriculture are the primary industries in the northern area and forest and mineral resources to the southern region respectively. The lowest part is 203 metres (666 ft), at the surface of Yangtze river in Jiucengyan, Hejiang county while the highest point is located at the peak of Liangzi mountain, Xuyong County, reaching 1,902 metres (6,240 ft). Luzhou is also a region covered by rivers. The Yangtze river flows through the whole area from west to east, covering a total course of 133 kilometres (83 mi), and the maximum flood level was 18.68 metres (61.3 ft) during the past 30 years. Other rivers converging here, such as Tuo River, Yongling River, Chishui River, and Laixi Rivers.
Luzhou has mild weather
Luzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and is largely mild, except during the summer, and humid, with four distinct seasons and ample rainfall: winters are short, mild, and comparatively dry, while summers are long, hot, and humid. Within the prefecture, annual mean temperatures range from 17.1 to 18.5 °C (62.8 to 65.3 °F). In the urban area, monthly daily average temperatures range from 7.6 °C (45.7 °F) in January to around 27 °C (80.6 °F) in July and August, with August being slightly warmer. The diurnal temperature variation is 6.1 °C (11.0 °F) and is lowest during winter. Snow is rare here. The annual precipitation in the prefecture ranges from 748.4 to 1,184.2 millimetres (29.46 to 46.62 in), 70% of which occurs from May to September. Sunshine is quite low, with only 1200 to 1400 hours per year, and the frost-free period is lengthy, lasting 300 to 358 days.