Linyi (simplified Chinese: 临沂; traditional Chinese: 臨沂; pinyin: Línyí) is a prefecture-level city in the south of Shandong province, China. As of 2011, Linyi is the largest prefecture-level city in Shandong, both by area and population, Linyi borders Rizhao to the east, Weifang to the northeast, Zibo to the north, Tai'an to the northwest, Jining to the west, Zaozhuang to the southwest, and the province of Jiangsu to the south. The city Linyi (临沂) literally means "close to the Yi River".
The city recently expanded along the Yi River to Nanfang, under slogan "Grand Linyi, New Linyi". Multiple recreational parks were built, along with new school campuses etc. The development is a consequence of a series of governmental projects, including relocate the city government, which is expected to stimulate the economy.
The population was 10,039,440 at the 2010 census, of which 2,303,648 lived in the built-up area made up of Lanshan District, Luozhuang District and Hedong District.
Linyi has a history of 2400 years. It is home to many historical figures, notably Zhuge Liang and Wang Xizhi. In 1972, the Sun Bin's Art of War was first discovered here,along with other classics on hand written bamboo slips. Sun Bin's Art of War is currently in display at Shandong Provincial museum.
In the spring of 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the city was the scene of fierce fighting between Chinese and Japanese troops. The civilians were encouraged by army victory in the Battle of Tai'erzhuang, which was nearby, defended Linyi fiercely, but Japanese soldiers breached the walls on April 19, 1938. The defenders withdrew the next day to another contested area 30 miles away.
In 1946, during the Chinese Civil War, the communist Directorate General of Shandong Wartime Posts was moved from the Yimeng Mountains to Linyi and renamed the Shandong Provincial Postal Administration.
After the People's Republic of China was founded in October 1949, the administrative division was adjusted.
In 2005, Linyi drew international attention as a center of human rights abuses related to the enforcement of China's controversial family planning policies. Following widespread allegations of violence and coercion in excess of Chinese law, local human rights defender Chen Guangcheng filed a class action lawsuit on behalf of the victims. The local Chinese courts refused to hear the case and imprisoned Chen Guangcheng on charges of fomenting state resistance. Due in part to the severity and scope of these abuses Linyi has been used by activists to criticize China's violation of women's rights.
Linyi is in the south of Shandong province, not far from the ports of Rizhao, Lanshan District, Rizhao and Lianyungang. It is along the G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway as well as the Eurasian Land Bridge. The urban area lies on mostly flat land that gives way to more rugged terrain in the west and northwest of the city's administrative area, which covers 17,184 km2 (6,635 sq mi).
Linyi has a monsoon-influenced climate with generous summer precipitation, with cold, dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Under the Köppen climate classification, it is in the transition from the humid subtropical zone (Cwa) to the humid continental zone (Dwa), though favouring the former. More than half of the annual precipitation of 831 mm (32.7 in) falls in July and August alone, and the frost-free period is above 200 days.