Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan,is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub.The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994.Jinan is often called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs.Its population was 7,067,900 in 2014 with an urban population of 4,693,700.
Jinan was the host of the 11th All China Games during October 2009. These games are the selection games for the Chinese Olympic champions. For this occasion, security was heightened and a full volunteer force was out on the streets directing visitor traffic. The city conducted major renovations in its transportation and recreation services in anticipation of the Games' visitors.
Jinan is located in the north-western part of Shandong province at 36° 40′ northern latitude and 116° 57′ east of Greenwich, about 400 kilometres (250 mi) south of the national capital of Beijing. It borders Liaocheng to the southwest, Dezhou to the northwest, Binzhou to the northeast, Zibo to the east, Laiwu to the southeast, and Tai'an to the south. In the relief of the region, the city occupies a transition zone between the northern foothills of the Taishan Massif to the south of the city and the valley of the Yellow River to the north. Karst aquifers in limestone formations sloping down from the south to the north give rise to many artesian springs in the city center as well as in surrounding areas.
Jinan has a humid subtropical (Köppen: Cwa), considering a normal isotherm of −3 °C, or a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dwa), considering an isotherm of 0 °C but favoring the former, with four well-defined seasons. The city is dry and nearly rainless in spring, hot and rainy in summer, crisp in autumn and dry and cold (with little snow) in winter. The average annual temperature is 14.70 °C (58.5 °F), and the annual precipitation is around slightly above 670 millimetres (26.4 in), with a strong summer maximum, and high variability from year to year. January is the coldest and driest month, with a mean temperature of −0.4 °C (31.3 °F) and 5.7 millimetres (0.22 in) of equivalent rainfall. July is the hottest and wettest month, the corresponding numbers are 27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and 201.3 mm (7.93 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48 percent in July to 63 percent in May, the city receives 2,547 hours of bright sunshine annually.
Due to the mountains to the south of the city, temperature inversions are common, occurring on about 200 days per year. The high precipitation for northern Chinese standards, in tandem with the topography (mountains surrounding the city on three sides), leads to particularly oppressive summer weather and the city being named as a candidate for the fourth "furnace", c.e. Three Furnaces. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −19.7 °C (−3 °F) on 17 January 1953 to 42.5 °C (109 °F) on 24 July 1955.