Xuzhou, known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu Province, China. Its population was 8,577,225 at the 2010 census whom 2,623,066 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Quanshan, Gulou, Yunlong and Tongshan districts. It is known for its role as a transportation hub in northwestern Jiangsu, as it has expressways and railway links connecting directly to the provinces of Henan and Shandong, the neighboring port city of Lianyungang, as well as the economic hub Shanghai.
Zhang Xun fled into Xuzhou with the remnants of his force, after the Nanking Uprising. They entered the city on 5 December 1911. A rifle platoon of garrison revolted on 7 February 1912. Since most of force had been flattened by the assaults, Zhang escaped to Yanzhou. On 11 February, the Revolutionary Army captured the area and disestablished the prefecture.
Yuan Shikai rearmed Zhang's army, then the latter returned and recaptured Xuzhou in the summer of the next year. They cracked down the republicans remained and continue their push towards Nanjing. Thereafter Zhang's headquarters was established in Xuzhou, he summoned the rest leaders of Beiyang clique to the conference for four times. Zhang involved the stalemate among Li Yuanhong and Duan Qirui in 1917. He marched towards Beijing at the head of a large force on 7 June. His failure spread and caused a terrible wave of theft and arson committed by his garrisons later in Xuzhou in July.
The geologic structure of Xuzhou consisting of four parts from east to west, more precisely, they belong to the Shandong-Jiangsu Traps (鲁苏地盾), the Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (郯庐断裂带), the Xu-Huai Downwarp-fold Belt (徐淮坳褶带) and the Fault-block of West Shandong (鲁西断块) respectively. It was formed during the Archean Eon and maintains relatively stable since then.
Most area of Xuzhou is located in the Xu-Huai Alluvial Plain (徐淮黄泛平原), the southeast part of the North China Plain.
There is a zone along the old course of Yellow River covered with sediment through the area.
The city proper is bisected by the ancient channel of Yellow River, while Yunlong Lake (云龙湖) is located in the its southwest.
Luoma Lake, located on the Xinyi-Suqian boundaries, is the main resource of tap water for Xuzhou since 2016.
Xuzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool, dry winters, warm springs, long, hot and humid summers, and crisp autumns. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 0.4 °C (32.7 °F) in January to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in July; the annual mean is 14.48 °C (58.1 °F). Snow may occur during winter, though rarely heavily. Precipitation is light in winter, and a majority of the annual total of 832 millimetres (32.8 in) occurs from June thru August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 44% in July to 54% in three months, the city receives 2,221 hours of bright sunshine annually.
The lowest temperature recorded in Xuzhou was -23.3 °C, on 6 February 1969, while the highest was 43.4 °C, on 15 July 1955.